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Conservation Biology and Wildlife Management Prof. Adriano Martinoli
Students will be provided with knowledge of historical trends, foundations and purpose of wildlife management and necessary concepts such interpretation keys of the role of wildlife management in respect of the modification of habitats and structuring of ecological networks.
To understand the role of protected areas in the conservation of wildlife the criteria for identifying, classification and regulations will be explained, including EU directives and international conventions on wildlife. Concerning the technical and methodological aspects, interpretive basis for the use of faunal related tools such as protocols and environmental assessment models will be explained; moreover will be given informations on introductions, reintroductions and restocking, as  well as environmental improvements for wildlife .

Biogeography Prof. Adriano Martinoli
Introduction to Biogeography, as spatial and temporal analysis of biodiversity. Theories and methods in biogeography. The role of biogeography in modern evolutionary biology.
Biological evolution in a spatial and temporal context, species and distribution concept, phylogenetic analysis, evolution and geological periods, continental drift. Biogeography of Mediterranean basin Vertebrates, origin of Italian fauna. Human biogeography, from hominidae to genus Homo.

Eco-Ethology of terrestrial fauna Prof. Damiano Preatoni
The course addresses the main behavioral aspects of ecology, with a particular focus on vertebrates (including Birds and Mammals), with specific reference to the European fauna of greater importance from an ecological and management perspective, the subject of research programs and wildlife planning and / or hunting from public and private entities.
Through lectures and seminars, the following topics will be covered: the study of behavior in nature and in evolutionary terms; possible experimental approaches; resource selection, cost/benefit analysis, optimization, competition; prey-predator relation; sociality; reproductive systems; communication.
The topics of the course will be treated not only from the theoretical point of view, but also using practical examples and case studies related to the Italian and European terrestrial fauna.

Application of Geographical Information Systems to biodiversity monitoring Prof. Damiano Preatoni
The course aims to provide an introduction to the use and application of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for the management of digital mapping, land use planning and conservation of natural resources, by providing the theoretical basis for the practical application of GIS technologies to real problems.
The first part of the course covers the basic concepts and general theoretical models on which modern GIS systems are based: information systems, components and functions of a GIS, organization and structure of the data and sources, data documentation (metadata). Are taken into account the possible representations of real entities within a computer system (models of vector and raster spatial representations and their derivatives, topology and basic primitives, database management system and geodatabase).
Operational aspects related to the use of Geographic Information Systems. They are presented and discussed, considering in particular the topological overlay (spatial query, Boolean operations, buffering), the map algebra, as well as the main techniques of acquisition, control and map creation.
The second part of the course provides an overview of the theoretical elements based on the application to real case studies with reference to the topics discussed in the course of Biogeography and Eco-Ethology of Terrestrial Wildlife.


Zoology Prof. Adriano Martinoli

The contents of the Zoology course are as follows:
Evolution of life and animal biodiversity; Darwinian approach, evolution, phylogeny and hierarchical classification, domains and kingdoms of life; Species, systematic and cellular classification and organization; Meaning and mechanisms of reproduction, gametogenesis and animal development; Support, protection, movement; Breathing, circulation, excretion; Digestion and nutrition; Nervous system, sense organs and endocrine system; Origins of eukaryotes, protists and protozoans; The origin of multicellularity; Radiata (Cnidaria and Ctenophora); Acelomati (Platelminti, Nemertini, Gnatostomulidi); Pseudocellomas (Rotifera, Acanthocephala, Gastrotricha, Nematoda, Nematomorpha); Celcomas (Molluscs, Anellides, Arthropods); Deuterostomies (Echinodermata and Emichordata, Chordata);

Implication of cell biology in scientific topics of environmental interest (eg biological control) ;Cell death (necrosis and apoptosis); Stem cells and cloning.


The teaching aims to develop theoretical and practical knowledge concerning data acquisition, data management and analyses of quantitative data in the field of wildlife monitoring. In particular, the objectives are to present the most common specific techniques in the context of wildlife monitoring, used to estimate the distribution, abundance and density of animal populations, with particular emphasis on applied ecology in wildlife management and conservation. Moreover, techniques that are relevant for the monitoring and conservation of biodiversity EU directives will be studied and applied within the framework of the EU directives (Directive 92/43/CEE “Habitat”; 2009/147/CE “Birds”, Regulation 1143/2014 on Invasive Alien Species). 

The course will not only treat the theory and techniques of data gathering and analyses, but will put emphasis on their practical applications, considering statistical techniques of modern biometry and their practical application through case studies and training in data management and data analyses using the free software R.

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